Donald Fry: Getting beyond Maryland’s clever budget-balancing tactics

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By: Donald C. Fry 

Some state lawmakers call them “smoke and mirrors.”

The state’s top fiscal analyst calls them “mandate-modifying palliatives of a one-time nature.”

They’re the budget-balancing tactics that lawmakers in Annapolis deploy in order to address the seemingly chronic series of so-called “structural” deficits our state government has been facing for more than a decade.

As Maryland pulls out of the recession, however, some in Annapolis are calling attention to the increasing cost of a favorite state budget-balancing tactic – borrowing.

Maryland’s projected deficits of $394 million in the current fiscal year and $210 million in FY 2015 represent a significant narrowing from the massive deficits of more than $1 billion lawmakers faced between 2009 and 2011 as the Great Recession wreaked havoc on Maryland’s economy. Our state government has been facing consecutive annual budget deficits since 2002.

The Maryland General Assembly is mandated by the state’s constitution to enact a balanced budget with projected revenues matching projected spending. And in each of the past 13 years, lawmakers have enacted a balanced budget even though in every one of those years actual operational revenue fell short of the state’s operational spending.

Here’s how borrowing figures into the deficit reduction process. The governor submits a budget that includes requested spending authorizations among state agencies. To close projected gaps between revenue and requested spending, the governor recommends transferring money to the General Fund from a wide variety of special funds set up for other dedicated purposes ranging from wetland preservation to transportation.

The governor requests lawmakers to authorize bond borrowing over a number of years to repay the “borrowed” special funds. So, in any given recent fiscal year, it has been routine for the General Fund to receive budget-balancing transfers from special funds while also paying debt service on bonds issued to repay borrowed special funds from previous years.

For example the FY 2015 budget being considered by the General Assembly proposes to transfer $69 million to the General Fund from a special fund of transfer tax revenues earmarked for land preservation, to be repaid by issuing bonds in future years. Meanwhile $83 million would be paid from the General Fund to help meet the state’s debt service for previously-issued repayment bonds, according to the Department of Legislative Services’ fiscal briefing.

During the last five years, the state has issued more than $1 billion in bonds to fund operating budget gaps, according to state data.

This process has become the accepted routine in Annapolis. But some, including Warren Deschenaux, the General Assembly’s top fiscal analyst – are warning of budget consequences in coming years. Deschenaux’s recent report to lawmakers forecasts that annual debt service payments required from the General Fund will increase to $499 million in FY 2018 and $531 million in FY 2019.

The practice of borrowing from special funds for operating revenue and bonding its replacement in the future “does take a pinch out of what we can use our bond money for,” Deschenaux told members Senate Budget and Taxation Committee and the House Appropriations Committee on January 20. “There is a significant opportunity cost, as well as the financial interest cost of bonding,” he said.

Whatever you think of the process state lawmakers have deployed to address budget gaps in recent years, the state’s structural deficit has been reduced to the point where Maryland’s budget is in better fiscal shape.

But those in Annapolis must recognize that there is much to be done to move our state to sustainable fiscal stability without use of “smoke and mirrors.” 

Stability of any government or organization requires that it “should be able to meet its mission without resorting to gimmicks, timing of payments, freezes, cost-shifting and the like,” says Robert R. Neall, the citizen member of the General Assembly’s Spending Affordability Committee, a former county executive of Anne Arundel County and a former state senator.

Business leaders at the Greater Baltimore Committee contend that the state’s top priority should be to reform its tax structure to better position Maryland to be competitive and to achieve government revenue growth without damaging the business climate.

At the GBC, a private-sector commission of experts is working to produce revenue-neutral recommendations for a tax structure that better matches the economy of the future.

Lawmakers have managed to finesse Maryland through the Great Recession. But Maryland’s fiscal future will rely on the degree to which they can position our state to aggressively compete for economic growth.

To accomplish that, it’s fundamentally important to be a fiscally sound state where spending and revenue are matched without an abundance of gimmickry.

Donald C. Fry is president and CEO of the Greater Baltimore Committee. He is a regular contributor to Center Maryland.  

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Donald C. Fry has been the president and CEO of the Greater Baltimore Committee (GBC), the central Maryland region's most prominent organization of business and civic leaders, since November 2002.


Under Don’s leadership, the GBC is recognized as a knowledgeable and highly credible business voice in the Baltimore region, Annapolis and Washington, D.C. on policy issues and competitive challenges facing Maryland. Its mission is to apply private-sector leadership to strengthening the business climate and quality of life in the region and state.


Fry served as GBC executive vice president from 1999 to 2002. From 1980 to 1999 Fry was engaged in a private law practice in Harford County. During this time he also served in the Maryland General Assembly. He is one of only a handful of legislators to have served on each of the major budget committees of the General Assembly.


Serving in the Senate of Maryland from 1997 to 1998, Fry was a member of the Budget and Taxation Committee. As a member of the House of Delegates from 1991 to 1997 Fry served on the Ways and Means Committee and on the Appropriations Committee.


Fry is a 1979 graduate of the University of Baltimore School of Law. He earned a B.S. in political science from Frostburg State College.